We’re starting a new project, and need your help!
Have you seen a hummingbird in Idaho this winter? Please contact us with your sightings.
Learn more about this research project here: https://ibo.boisestate.edu/winter-hummers/
Written by Rob Miller
My fifth year as part of the Intermountain Bird Observatory (IBO) leading the research on Northern Goshawks within the Sawtooth National Forest has come to a close. By all measures it was a very successful year, but unfortunately my time trouncing through the woods has finished for this season.
Two goshawk nestlings in a newly discovered nest in Piñon Pine, an uncommon nesting substrate.
I thought it might be helpful to dive a bit deeper into the objectives of this program. As with many programs, our efforts are balanced among a number of objectives. Some of our objectives are mostly nested within the other objectives, so we can be efficient in addressing multiple objectives with the same effort.
Core objectives for the Northern Goshawk research and monitoring efforts:
- Evaluate the population trend for this species within the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest.
- Evaluate the genetic health of this species within the northern Great Basin region of the western United States, which encompasses the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest.
- Evaluate threats to this species, with an emphasis on blood parasites, within the northern Great Basin of the western United States.
- Provide educational and training opportunities for undergraduate students preparing for a career in wildlife biology.
Here’s more detail on each of these objectives.
Objective 1. Evaluate the population trend for this species within the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest.
The USDA Forest Service has a set of guidelines requiring each forest to identify Management Indicator Species (MIS) that align with their forest structural objectives. The basic concept is that instead of monitoring all species within the forest, which is not generally feasible, each forest should monitor a few key species whose population status is generally dependent and aligned with the type of forest structure they desire. There are generally a wide range of criteria for choosing good management indicator species (Caro and Girling 2010). Seddon and Leech (2008) suggested a focus on seven criteria for choosing appropriate species: they should have a well-known biology; large home range size; high probability of population persistence; co-occurrence of species of conservation interest; management needs that are beneficial to co-occurring species; sensitivity to human disturbance; and ease of monitoring. The Northern Goshawk meets most of these criteria, at least to some degree. While this approach has its critics, Sergio et al. (2006) has demonstrated a high correlation between Northern Goshawk presence and species diversity including the number of avian species (richness), the number of vulnerable avian species, the number of tree species, and overall avian species diversity (richness and evenness). It is not surprising that many forests, including most in Idaho, have chosen the Northern Goshawk as one of their Management Indicator Species.
Nestlings ready to fledge in the City of Rocks National Reserve.
36 – 38 days old (usually fledge 34-42 days old).
The Sawtooth National Forest is one forest that has specified the Northern Goshawk as an MIS species. They partner with the Intermountain Bird Observatory to accomplish their monitoring objectives as we deliver core biological science to the key questions within the forest. The work within the Sawtooth National Forest has been implemented in steps. IBO worked with the Sawtooth National Forest on goshawks in the late 1990 and early 2000’s. This work was renewed in 2011. My first two years, my thesis years (2011 and 2012), were focused on how the the goshawks utilize the local forest from both a forest structural perspective (Miller et al. 2013) and a prey perspective (Miller et al. 2014). These results had both scientific and management implications. The goshawks within the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest have had to adapt to the highly fragmented, island-like structure of the forest, and the absence of the primary food source they consume in most other regions of the world where they exist – tree squirrels.
They don’t all make it. ~20-day old nestling. I discovered this failed nest on the day it failed. Apparently predated by an aerial predator, likely an owl. The nest was covered in feathers.
South Hills, Idaho.
The next two years of the study have included utilizing the habitat models that I established with my thesis work and a lot of effort on the ground to locate previously unknown nesting territories. This activity has been very fruitful in doubling the number of known goshawk territories within the forest while also further refining our understanding of the habitat use.
While we have not located all of the nesting territories within the forest, we now have sufficient coverage to shift our primary attention toward population size, structure, and dynamics. Historical data within the northern Great Basin suggests that female turnover is much higher in the region than elsewhere (Bechard et al. 2006). It has been suggested that turnover rate may be a much more important measure of population health than population size as sink populations, those with a much higher immigration rate than emigration rate, can show stable population size even as the local population heads toward collapse. Turnover refers to the replacement of a breeding adult from one year to the next within a territory. Turnover can occur as the result of death or abandonment (one adult disperses to a new mate and territory). Turnover is primarily measured by mark-resight studies involving trapping and banding the adult birds with color bands which can be read from a distance without having to recapture the bird. In 2014 and 2015, we have deployed many color bands on adult birds in the area and our efforts have already been paying off.
Female Purple Z3 nesting for at least her second year in the Albion Mountains, Idaho. Purple color band Z3 clearly visible on her right leg (photo from 2014, but observed again in 2015). Originally banded as a nestling in the South Hills in 2012. With this single band we have established a natal dispersal distance for this individual and have identified that she has bred for two years in a row in the same territory, all without recapturing her.
These banding activities will enable us to monitor occupancy, productivity, turnover rates, and responses to management actions. Our preliminary results from 2015 suggest that the high turnover observed a decade ago is still occurring at similar rates.
I have two leading hypotheses regarding why the turnover rate may be higher within this forest as compared with other nearby forests.
- My post-fledging mortality hypothesis (leading hypothesis)
- Nest productivity is good by both common measures (young fledged per occupied nest and young fledged per successful nest). (CONFIRMED)
- The breeding season diet within the area is predominantly ground squirrels. (CONFIRMED – Miller et al. 2014)
- Ground squirrels estivate mid-summer removing them from the available food supply for goshawks. (CONFIRMED)
- Female goshawks generally abandon territory the year after a brood failure at a rate of 50% (CONFIRMED).
- There is insufficient food to support the cohort of fledglings after ground squirrel estivation causing high fledgling mortality resulting in complete failure of some broods (NOT confirmed)
- Females abandon the territories in our study area due to these late season failures (NOT confirmed).
- My disease hypothesis
- Black flies within the family Simuliidae are pervasive in the area and carry/pass the Leucocytozoon blood parasite (CONFIRMED – Twin Falls County Pest Abatement District 2012)
- Blood parasites are pervasive within the study area (CONFIRMED – Jeffries et al. 2015)
- Females are more at risk than males due to the amount of time they spend immobile at the nest (Partially Confirmed).
- Female survival is lower as a result of the parasite and the onslaught of black flies (blood loss; NOT confirmed).
We will be working through these research questions in the coming years, assuming we can get funding for the work.
Objective 2. Evaluate the genetic health of this species within the northern Great Basin region of the western United States, which encompasses the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest.
The northern Great Basin provides unique habitat for a wide variety of species. The area is home to unique genetic composition for a number of species – a sub-species of Red Crossbill, known as the South Hills Crossbill, that is endemic to the area; an endangered plant called Christ’s Paintbrush that is endemic to the area; a unique form of Lodgepole Pine tree; and a number of bird species that exist nowhere else in Idaho.
Bayard de Volo et al. (2013) investigated the inter-relationship of various North American goshawk populations. Among other things, they found that there were unique mitochondrial haplotypes located in the Rocky Mountains which appear not to have travelled back to the coastal mountain populations. Think of a haplotype as a genetic signature. Bayard de Volo and team believe that as the glaciers retreated in North America, the Rocky Mountains were populated with goshawks from the historical refuges within the coastal mountains and from Arizona. The birds developed new haplotypes in the Northern Rockies, but these haplotypes have not migrated back. Bayard de Volo and team did not investigate the northern Great Basin populations. That is where we at IBO come in.
Rob (me) climbing tree to access the nestlings for banding and genetic sampling.
Team Goshawk intern Kenny and forest biologist Scott banding and sampling the first goshawk nestling of the season. Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
The forest structure and prey composition within the northern Great Basin presents unique challenges for goshawks (Miller et al. 2013, 2014). It is conceivable that the goshawk populations in these areas have undergone evolutionary changes which enable them to better adapt to these environmental options. Therefore, we postulate that we may find unique genetic haplotypes in the area which have not migrated to the core of the Rocky Mountains or back to the coastal populations. Furthermore, if connectivity does exist to these larger contiguous populations to the east and west, to which are the northern Great Basin birds integrated?
Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Northern Goshawks within the South Hills
of the Sawtooth National Forest collected in 2012. Each row represents a different bird. In this case all samples shown represent the same haplotype.
A separate analysis process (microsatellites) allows us to look for signs of inbreeding depression. This process is a bit more complicated and takes more time. The mitochondrial haplotype process described earlier looks further back (i.e., thousands of year), whereas the microsatellite process allows us to look more into the past 100 years – post-modern human settlement.
We collect genetic samples by taking blood, removing a feather from a bird, or even collecting a molted feather from the ground beneath the nest. The adult female often molts feathers while incubating eggs on the nest. Some of these molted feathers contain sufficient DNA for extraction. We prefer the least intrusive method (molted feather from ground), but if we need blood for the parasite study (discussed below), then we use it for the DNA as well as blood provides the highest quality sample.
For two years now I have had National Science Foundation funded undergraduate students, Steph in 2014 and Kenny in 2015, working on the genetic analysis. Each have worked with me in the field for a period of four weeks surveying for birds and collecting samples before reporting into the laboratory for the delicate work of genetic analysis.
We are still processing samples, but so far we have not discovered any unique haplotype signatures for the northern Great Basin. This is both good news and bad. Good as that decreases the chance of genetic bottlenecks in the population, bad because it would be really cool to discover that goshawks have evolved specifically to this dry forest island environment. Additionally, our early results indicate that at least the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest is well integrated with the Rocky Mountains to the east. We have processed fewer samples using the deeper analysis, but so far we have discovered no signs of inbreeding depress. That is great news from a conservation perspective.
We have collected samples from the Owyhee Mountains in southwestern Idaho (still in analysis) and are partnering with forest biologists across Idaho and in Oregon to expand the geographic scope of our work.
Objective 3. Evaluate threats to this species, with an emphasis on blood parasites, within the northern Great Basin of the western United States.
When I began my work with the goshawks back in 2011, I was informed that most of the birds in the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest probably die of a blood parasite that was believed to be in the area. This occurred after I had already designed my thesis work focusing on prey and habitat or I probably would have just focused on the parasite. Regardless, I was able to recruit a volunteer undergraduate student, Michelle, to work on collecting and analyzing blood samples searching for a blood parasite related to Malaria known as Leucocytozoon.
The vector for the disease are flies of the family Simuliidae. These flies are pervasive in the area and pose a double threat. The first threat is from blood loss. At first I didn’t believe that a small fly could have such an impact, but even livestock are at risk of blood loss with these flies. The flies are relentless, targeting the neck and eyes of the nestlings and adult females. I have even donated my blood to one or two of them! The second threat of course is the blood parasite disease.
Goshawk nestlings covered in flies from the family Simuliidae, sucking blood and known vectors of the blood parasite Leucocytozoon. South Hills, Idaho, 2011.
Skin lesions around the neck of an adult female goshawk, likely caused by Black Flies. South Hills, Idaho, 2012.
The adult male birds we handle rarely show the effects of the Black Flies. We believe that these birds have the parasite (confirmed in some), but they are more mobile during the breeding season, better able to avoid the flies. In goshawks the female performs 100% of the incubation and brooding, putting her at constant risk at the nest.
Adult male goshawk with little sign of Black Fly lesions.
Leucocytozoon blood parasite (center) amongst goshawk red blood cells from a sample of blood from a South Hills nestling goshawk taken in 2012. Note: avian blood cells are nucleated, unlike mammalian blood cells.
Our results from 2012 have shown that 28 nestlings from 12 separate nests were all infected with the Leucocytozoon blood parasite. Since samples were taken at a nestling age of approximately 24-28 days old, and the disease takes two weeks to show up in the blood, they were all infected within the first 10 days of their life. This speaks to the pervasiveness of the disease. It is believed that the flies do not themselves have the disease intrinsically, but pick it up as the bite the adult female in the nest and then pass it along as they bite the nestlings. This is referred to as vertical transmission within the nest.
Michelle has submitted a research manuscript for publication in the Journal of Raptor Research, which is due out in the September issue! Woo Hoo!
Jeffries, M. I., R. A. Miller, M. D. Laskowski, and J. D. Carlisle. 2015. High prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites in nestling Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in the northern Great Basin USA. Journal of Raptor Research 49 (3): In Press.
Our next steps are to use genetic techniques to analyze the blood samples for other blood parasites such as avian malaria and Hemaproteus. These diseases are transmitted by mosquitos so we expect less pervasiveness as there are fewer mosquitos in the area. We are working to acquire funding and organize this effort at this time.
4. Provide educational and training opportunities for undergraduate students preparing for a career in wildlife biology.
In my five years of work on goshawks, I have directly employed six undergraduate students on these projects. Four are working as wildlife biologists or in related fields (Lauren, Emmy, Mike, and Steph), one is in graduate school leading her own research (Michelle), and one is still an undergraduate (Kenny). I hope that I have provided an excellent opportunity for them to learn and grow and have provided sufficient guidance to help them be more successful in their careers. Michelle’s publication due out next month is a tremendous accomplishment. I feel more honored to have mentored her in the process than to have my own publication. I expect this to be the first in a number of mentored publications in which I get to participate (I am still working on my own as well).
In addition to the direct engagement of students on the project, for the last two years I have hosted a two day goshawk workshop for the group of undergraduate raptor research students participating in the National Science Foundation funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program at Boise State University. This program hires eight or nine undergraduates each year from across the country. It is highly competitive with over 250 applicants each year. I have hosted one student each of the past two years – Steph in 2014 and Kenny in 2015, focusing on genetics. However, for one weekend each year, we bring all eight or nine students to the study area to focus on goshawks. For most students this is the first time they have seen a goshawk in the wild. They are trained on identification, surveying, tree climbing, genetic sampling, etc. What a great opportunity!
It is hard to boil down five years of work into a single blog post! Hopefully you found it worthwhile.
An old friend. Banded adult female goshawk nesting where I would expect her – Band: Purple N4.
Bayard De Volo, Shelley, Richard T. Reynolds, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Sandra L. Talbot, and Michael F. Antolin. 2013. “Phylogeography, Postglacial Gene Flow, and Population History of North American Northern Goshawks (Accipiter Gentilis).” The Auk 130 (2): 342–354.
Bechard, M. J., G. D. Fairhurst, and G. S. Kaltenecker. 2006. “Occupancy, Productivity, Turnover and Dispersal of Northern Goshawks in Portions of the Northeastern Great Basin.” Studies in Avian Biology 31: 100–108.
Caro, Timothy M, and Sheila Girling. 2010. Conservation by Proxy Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, and Other Surrogate Species. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Jeffries, M. I., R. A. Miller, M. D. Laskowski, and J. D. Carlisle. 2015. High prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites in nestling Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in the northern Great Basin USA. Journal of Raptor Research. In Press.
Miller, R. A., J. D. Carlisle, M. J. Bechard, and D. Santini. 2013. “Predicting Nesting Habitat of Northern Goshawks in Mixed Aspen-Lodgepole Pine Forests in a High-Elevation Shrub-Steppe Dominated Landscape.” Open Journal of Ecology 3 (2): 109–115.
Miller, R. A., J. D. Carlisle, and M. J. Bechard. 2014. “Effects of Prey Abundance on Breeding Season Diet of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter Gentilis) within an Unusual Prey Landscape.” Journal of Raptor Research 48 (1): 1–12.
Seddon, Philip J., and Tara Leech. 2008. “Conservation Short Cut, or Long and Winding Road? A Critique of Umbrella Species Criteria.” Oryx 42 (02): 240–45.
Sergio, F., I. Newton, L. Marchesi, and P. Pedrini. 2006. “Ecologically Justified Charisma: Preservation of Top Predators Delivers Biodiversity Conservation.” Journal of Applied Ecology 43 (6): 1049–1055.
Twin Falls County Pest Abatement District. 2012. Why all the Black Flies. Twin Falls, Idaho. http://www.tfcpad.qwestoffice.net/.
Wiens, J. D., and F. T. Reynolds. 2005. “Is Fledging Success a Reliable Index of Fitness in Northern Goshawks?” Journal of Raptor Research 39 (3): 210–221.
Cactus spines & the various shades of curlew poop: a 3-week journey across Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming to capture and track Long-billed Curlews
By Jay Carlisle
I’m happy to be coordinating a huge study of Long-billed Curlews this spring across 3 states. Since early April I’ve been working with a dedicated graduate student, 9 field technicians, and countless supporting/collaborating partners in each of 7 study areas. During the first 10 days of May, our local team worked hard to capture and band 10 adult curlews in our study area west of Boise (the Long-billed Curlew Habitat Area of Critical Environmental Concern), including deploying satellite transmitters on 4 new birds. A few days later it was time for me to begin a fieldwork-oriented road trip in order to capture adults and deploy additional transmitters at our other 6 sites. I left on May 13 and returned to Boise on June 3, having visited many beautiful places and worked with many great people along the way!
1st stop, Big Creek Ranch, Pahsimeroi Valley, Idaho: from the evening of May 13 through late afternoon of May 14, 4 of our dedicated curlew technicians (Ben, Erica, Hattie, & Sarah) assisted me in capturing 5 adult curlews and we deployed a transmitter on a new adult female. Ben had already found ~10 nests in the area by the time we arrived but on the morning of the 14th we located 3 new nests before resuming trapping – a great morning! Our newly transmittered bird, CT, joined the ranks of the other Pahsimeroi birds, Goldie and Borah.
MPG Ranch, Montana: We had initiated work at MPG during May 2014 but had disappointing/inconsistent results from the hand-me-down transmitters we deployed. In 2015 we were hoping to recapture the birds from 2014 to deploy new, more reliable transmitters. BUT, we found fewer curlews in 2015 and were only able to find 1 of the 2014 curlews (a female named “Parking Lot Dave” :-). Fortunately Sarah had been able to find her nest so, once we arrived from the Pahsimeroi, we quickly captured her and outfitted her with a shiny new transmitter! We had less luck with her mate as a storm prevented us from an early evening attempt and when we tried early the next morning, he flushed at the last second (“noooooooo!”). I had to shift focus to a point count survey training for the next 5 days (great fun in the beautiful Swan Valley of Montana) and I returned on Friday late afternoon hoping for a 2nd attempt at Dave’s mate. When we arrived to the vantage point we saw what I was afraid of (no 2nd chance to catch him) but what was also REALLY COOL to see: 2 chicks had just barely hatched and the other 2 would hatch by the next morning. So, we were treated to an across-valley view of the pair tending their newly hatched chicks! Our elation at this event was soon ruined as Sarah saw a lot of coyote activity in the nest area a couple days later and then never saw chicks again – proof that raising young curlews is a tough gig in today’s world!
Cody/Powell, Wyoming: after striking out on a 2nd visit to MPG, I decided it was time to head to the most distant study site – one of our new sites for 2015, situated near Cody & Powell, Wyoming.
I had been here in mid-April when delivering Eric & Jeremy to the site and meeting local contacts, Brian & Carrie Peters with The Nature Conservancy’s Heart Mountain Ranch Preserve and Destin Harrell with BLM. It’s a gorgeous area that also holds some different habitat relative to our other study sites – a mix of bunchgrasses, low sage, and some cactus. These habitat features, especially the sage and tall bunchgrass, meant that this was a more difficult place in which to find nests.
In my career as an ornithologist, I have found curlews to be the most challenging species I have studied in terms of the effort/skill it takes to find their nests. They nest in the open on the ground and are thus quite wary when human observers are close (especially within ~200 yards) so we’ve learned to watch from a distance at key times of day. But this habitat increased the challenge as the bunchgrass (taller than usual because of a wetter 2014 growing season) and sage combined with the subtly rolling terrain made it really difficult to observe curlews from far away. Thus, even though Eric & Jeremy were finding moderate densities of curlews in a couple areas (Heart Mountain Ranch and the Polecat Bench area), including numerous pairs, finding nests was proving difficult. Fortunately they had found one at Polecat just a couple days before I arrived so on Monday we headed out to capture the female. This ended up being my most shocking capture experience of the season as when I knelt down to corral the female after she jumped into the net, my knee and both wrists went right into clumps of prickly pear cactus – ouch! Fortunately adrenaline didn’t let me feel the pain until after I had a solid grip on the female but I was pulling out the broken tips of spines from my knee weeks later :-) We were rewarded with some excitement when we came back a couple days later to catch and band the male – 2 of the eggs were starting to hatch and we could actually hear them chirping! Needless to say, we hurried to band and process the male as quickly as we could so he could get back to his nest ASAP.
Pipping eggs at Polecat Bench, Wyoming
We ended up being able to find 2 other nests on the slopes of Heart Mountain and thus were able to deploy the 2 transmitters we hoped to in this study area and caught 2 other adults to band and collect genetics samples. During my time in the Cody/Powell area, we had a couple other notable observations:
- Eric and Jeremy had recently noticed a large gathering area for curlews near where they were staying on the Heart Mountain Ranch – a field with a tall mix of alfalfa and grasses. We continued to see this each evening and morning and realized that many of the females nesting on the slopes of Heart Mountain were coming here for the evening/night, presumably for food and cover, and then heading back to nesting areas in the early morning.
- Another fun thing we noticed was variability in poop color :-). Previously I’d mostly seen some variation from greenish to grayish but across the 4 birds we captured in this area, we saw a wide variation – including 1 bird with mostly reddish poop. Dr. Eric Atkinson, a local colleague/collaborator teaching at Northwest College in Powell, suggested maybe it was from eating some of the numerous grasshoppers in the area and this seemed the best explanation.
Henry’s Lake area, Idaho: With the help of TNC, in 2014 we had been able to deploy a transmitter on a female curlew at the Flat Ranch Preserve that TNC supporters voted to name Henrietta. We were excited to be able to get more details about curlews in this area in 2015 – including extensive abundance surveys throughout the Henry’s Lake basin and Shotgun Valley, nesting success information, and adding 2 more transmitters. Erica and Hattie had started the nest-searching season with a bang and one of the really cool things they documented was that 2 nests they found each had 5 eggs – something we hadn’t yet seen. One of these was Henrietta’s nest and catching her mate was a high priority once I arrived here.
Fortunately their nest was relatively close and catching her mate proved to be pretty straightforward – thus, it was great to arrive in the afternoon and have deployed a key transmitter by nightfall!
We spent the next couple of days searching for nests in the Shotgun Valley where, like over in the Cody/Powell area, sagebrush made long distance visibility difficult. Our efforts paid off and we were able to trap a female on the Trude Ranch and set her up with a transmitter. During the rest of my time here we were foiled by several rain squalls but we still ended up able to catch the birds we needed to. As with all other sites, local partnerships have been crucial to our success and enjoyment on this project – TNC, IDFG, BLM, and the local Master Naturalist chapter all played important roles in our work in the Henry’s Lake area.
Jackson, Wyoming: In 2014 we had deployed a transmitter on a single female on the National Elk Refuge, named AJ, and she had the most unique migration of any of the curlews in our study to date – long stopovers during both fall and spring migrations and she traveled much further south in Mexico than our other tracked birds. I was excited to have funding from the Meg & Bert Raynes Wildlife Fund and the Wyoming Governor’s Association Big Game License Coalition to deploy 2 more transmitters in the Jackson area: 1 more on the National Elk Refuge and 1 on Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). I really hoped to be able to find AJ’s nest and deploy a transmitter on her mate so I was excited when Erica (who had agreed to volunteer her weekend helping me in Jackson so she could see the Tetons) found her nest! But, a combination of thunderstorms and bad luck led to a day and a half of the worst trapping success I’ve ever experienced – and had me scratching my head and pleading for luck to return! First we had a female flush very early from a nest in GTNP, likely because of some raven and raptor disturbance we saw while getting ready. Then a storm foiled our attempt to catch AJ’s mate that evening. We tried for him early the next morning and he flushed at the last second (another silent “noooooo!”). We decided to shift back over to GTNP and actually had some good luck for a spell in which we located 3 new nests (making for 4 nests plus at least one other pair from 1 vantage point – an impressive density of nesting curlews!) over the course of a few hours but then continued our bad luck in capture by failing on our first 2 attempts. Finally, on our most distant nest, we succeeded in catching a large, and fortunately cooperative, female!
We still needed to deploy a transmitter on the National Elk Refuge and, so far, we’d only been able to find a single nest – AJ’s. Her mate was the curlew I most wanted to catch but would we be able to catch him with a 2nd attempt or would he flush early? I was stressed and unsure how best to go about it but, with council from my main partner in Wyoming – Wyoming Game and Fish Department biologist Susan Patla – decided that it’d be worth an evening attempt since maybe he’d be more likely to stick on the nest when settling in for his nocturnal incubation duties (he’d flushed in the morning when he knew AJ was around and getting ready to spell him). So I was able to quickly pull together an all-volunteer team and give it a try. Figuring I had much less than a 50/50 chance, we went for it and my heart was pounding as we approached his nest. We had the net right over the nest area but couldn’t see him so we hesitated in lowering the net … Suddenly he flushed at an angle but barely flew into the last panel of the net. “YEEEESSSSSSS!” I even did a little skip on my way in to corral him in the net as I was so relieved to have captured this guy :-). It was fun to celebrate with the dedicated volunteers that had helped, including Jennifer & husband Mike, Mark and his daughter Emmie, and Mary – all of whom had witnessed multiple failed capture attempts and were very deserving of some excitement!
Daniel, Wyoming: This was the last stop on my 3+ week journey and I was looking forward to seeing the curlew activity in this new-to-us study area. The flood irrigated pastures in the Daniel area support the largest known curlew population in Wyoming. This population was first studied in the early 1980s as part of a master’s thesis and our 2015 field season was an opportunity to revisit this historic study as well as deploy transmitters in a new area. I had 3 transmitters to deploy and hoped to be as efficient as possible; thus, I was none too happy when yet another thunderstorm put an end to trapping plans on my first evening in the area (June 1). I needed to get back to Boise by the 3rd so this meant the 2nd was going to be a busy day! We started around 6am for some nest searching on a ranch where the crew, Kevin & Mikki, had just recently been granted permission to search and monitor. It was a happening first couple hours as we found 4 new nests, including 1 that was hatching that morning! We didn’t finish work until almost 9pm, after capturing 5 adult curlews and deploying transmitters on 2 females and a male – possibly the most productive day on this curlew study for me with 4 new nests and 5 birds captured. It was an epic day during which I appreciated the hard work of my field technicians and my colleagues with Wyoming Game & Fish as well as the interest and enthusiasm of several private landowners I was able to meet.
Now we get to sit back and do “armchair biology” by watching where these birds go: https://ibo.boisestate.edu/curlewtracking/locations/
The time has come to choose names for our other two curlews that live on The Long-billed Curlew Area of Critical Environmental Concern near Emmett and Middleton! We’ve already named our pair, Thor and Valkyrie, thanks to Middleton High School.
Now we have a male and a female, EP and CP who still need names. These two are not paired together, but both have nests on the Long-billed Curlew ACEC area.
Students from some Idaho schools have come up with name options for these birds. Let us know your favorite name!
- Emmett High Schoolers chose the names Gem (female) and Canyon (male), named after Gem and Canyon counties
- Trail Wind Elementary students chose the names Sherlock Holmes (male) and Juliet (female–after Romeo and Juliet)
- Students from Borah High School chose the couples names Ben and Jeri or Jack and Jill
- Liberty Elementary 4th-6th graders chose James Bond (for a male–because curlews are sneaky and hard to find like James Bond around their nests) or Sage (for a female since curlews live in sagebrush and there is a lot of sage in Idaho)
- A Sage International School student chose the name Nez (for the female) and Perce (for the male) after the Nez Perce tribe
- 5th grade students from Perrine Elementary voted for the names Colton and Caterina the curlews.
- And 2nd graders from the Barbara Morgan STEM Academy chose Buster (male) and Lemon (female)
Polls are closed! The winning name for CP was Gem. Congrats Emmett High School!
The winning name for EP was Canyon. Congrats Emmett High School!
We have finalized our dates for hummingbird banding near Idaho City in 2015!
This will be our 4th year monitoring hummingbirds in Idaho City. As always, we will be banding every other week throughout the summer, studying the timing of hummingbird migration and breeding activities. All of our banding events are free to attend, however, to visit hummingbird banding you must sign up ahead of time. This is because we band at a private residence and there isn’t much room for parking or visitors. We limit the number of people who can attend, so please reserve your spot as soon as possible.
Available dates:June 4, June 20, July 2, July 18, Aug 1, Aug 15, Aug 27
Please see the link below – you must sign up in advance as space is limited.
Our curlew trapping season has begun! We have 19 transmitters that we will be putting out this spring on Long-billed Curlews at various locations. Here’s an update on the season so far.
The Transmittered Birds
We have transmitters on 3 ACEC birds so far, and plan to do a fourth in the next few days. Because we are working with schools and community groups in the valley to get the word out about curlews (and especially about not shooting them!) we thought we would ask some local schools to help us name the ACEC birds.
Our first two birds have already been named, based on votes and suggestions from 300 biology and ecology students at Middleton High School. Thanks for Mr. Love and Mr. Wiley for letting us visit your classes!
So, without further ado, allow us to introduce our first two named birds of the 2015 season!
Meet: Thor and Valkyrie!
These two birds are a mated pair living on an area of the ACEC we have called “mountain view” because of the beautiful mountains visible on the horizon at this site.
Appropriately, this couple is named after characters in Norse Mythology, since the mascot for Middleton schools is the Viking.
Two of our birds will be named with a naming contest based on a combination of submissions from area schools.
We have a female, CP who has yet to be named, and hope to catch our fourth bird soon.
The season so far and what’s ahead…
We have 7 study sites throughout the Intermountain West where we will be trapping birds this year, but for now we are focusing our transmitting efforts in the Treasure Valley. With its lower elevation and warmer climate, the ACEC (our study site near Emmett and Middleton, ID) is the first location to have nesting birds. So, we are working to catch curlews there before moving on to our other study sites. Stay tuned for updates from the field as we begin attaching transmitters elsewhere.
Over the past 5 days, we have managed to catch 6 curlews total. Although we usually make it sound easy, this season has been particularly taxing on the trapping team. So far the score is 4-6 curlews vs trappers. This is our highest ‘miss’ rate so far! For some reason this year, we have had more birds than usual flush before we can get near them with the net…maybe their friends who are already sporting some of our ‘jewelry’ have warned them about us!
One particular instance, we were gearing up to trap a female incubating on her nest. Just as we were lining up the net to make a go for her, Jay flushed a female curlew from the ground from just a few feet away! Apparently this female had been sitting on her nest, quietly incubating her eggs while we were setting up the net just yards away from her. She squawked once as she left the nest and the jig was up! The female on the nest we planned to trap saw the entire interaction and wasn’t about to let us get anywhere near her. We had to give up on that area and move on.
This year we have BSU grad student, Stephanie Coates, working on the project with our research director, Jay Carlisle, as her advisor. As part of her study, she’ll be investigating the genetics of our 7 curlew populations. We’re hoping this will help us piece together a better picture of curlew population connectivity. Because of this, we are catching some curlews to attach transmitters and take DNA samples, and others we are simply banding and taking DNA without attaching a transmitter.
So far we have trapped 3 curlews for DNA samples and 3 curlews for DNA+Transmitters.
We are excited to see what discoveries the DNA will reveal!
While taking a spit swab, we also got to experience a strange phenomenon that none of us were expecting! We’ve always noticed the grooves on the tips of curlews beaks and wondered what they were for, but had no idea they were actually flex lines! That’s right, curlews can actually bend the tips of their beaks!
While chatting at a barbecue with our bird-nerd friend Bryce (because what else would you talk about at a barbecue?) we learned that this is actually a known phenomenon in other bird species as well, known as Rhynchokinesis.
Check out this whacky video of the phenomenon in action, taken by Ben Wright.
(Obviously the curlews don’t enjoy this process, but it is a relatively efficient and very safe technique for collecting DNA from them).
Well, that’s all for now!
If you haven’t already, be sure to follow us on Social Media. You can follow our main IBO pages, and we also have some curlew-specific pages with more frequent updates for those of you who are curlew super-fans :)
The Curlew Crew website–run by Grad Student, Stephanie
Jay and Heidi recently attended the Partners in Science National Conference in San Diego, CA. We were invited to attend because of IBO’s work mentoring a Boise teacher. As part of a fellowship from the M.J. Murdock Charitable Trust, local teacher Lindsey Lockwood from Sage International School has been working with IBO to conduct scientific research. During the conference, Lindsey presented her research on songbird population trends at Lucky Peak to an audience of fellow teachers. She hopes to integrate what she has learned through this fellowship into her lessons in the classroom. Aside from watching Lindsey present (she rocked it!) we also got to network with a variety of researchers and teachers from across the US.
After the conference ended, we decided to head out into the desert toward the Salton Sea, where “Frank” one of our Long-billed Curlews has been spending the winter. With GPS coordinates in hand, we headed for the field where Frank’s most recent signal came from.
As we arrived, we saw a few curlew heads poking out of the alfalfa! We scanned the field for any signs of an antenna poking out of the vegetation, but didn’t see any birds with transmitters.
It’s possible Frank was in the field hiding, but he may have already taken off for the morning to other foraging grounds. It was fun to imagine that the curlews watching us from the field had spent the night roosting with Frank, and to think about where these birds may have come from. Were any of them also from the ACEC?
Moving on toward the Salton Sea (where Heidi’s lifer Yellow-footed Gull awaited) we ran into many fields with foraging curlews. Here’s just a sample video of what one of these fields looks like.
Even though we didn’t get to see Frank himself, it was amazing to see such large numbers of curlews spending time in these fields and observe some of their wintering behavior. As we left the Salton Sea area we wished them well…soon they will begin their migration north toward their breeding grounds!
A few of you may have noticed that we haven’t had any updates on Venus, one of our ACEC curlews, in quite some time. Unfortunately, Venus died on the Long-billed Curlew Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC) study area during the last week of May. We launched an official investigation of her death with the Idaho Fish and Game’s Wildlife Health Laboratory, and so haven’t been able to share the news until now. Read on for the rest of the story, and the conclusions of her autopsy.
We are saddened to lose Venus (and the monetary/time investment that went into attaching her transmitter) but we hope that her story will help bring attention to the plight of her fellow Long-billed Curlews on the ACEC. We are also sad to share this news with the Community Cub Scout Pack (#255) of Middleton, who visited her home this spring and chose her name.
Toward the end of May, we began to get a signal that Venus’s transmitter had not moved. As always we were concerned, but we were out of town attaching transmitters on other curlews and so were not able to go check on her right away. We became even more worried when realizing that the crew had last seen her with recently hatched chicks but hadn’t found her on the last couple visits to her territory. In 2013 we strongly suspected that one of our curlews was shot, and he was killed just days after his chicks hatched – when curlews are the most defensive of their territory, most visible, and most likely to loudly approach humans that are near their chicks. With her risk of being shot elevated, we feared the worst. This was not just a transmitter glitch.
When we finally made it to the ACEC in June, we found what we had expected: Venus was dead. There was no sign of her mate or chicks anywhere in the area. Since chicks of a young age are not very mobile, we assume that her chicks died and her mate fled (he did not have a transmitter, so we will never know but it’s possible that the male continued to care for the chicks).
Because of the hot summer weather, there wasn’t much left of her, but thankfully we were able to recover Venus’s transmitter unharmed. After some debate, we decided it would be worth it to collect what was left of her body to investigate the cause of death, though we were not hopeful that any evidence remained so long after her death. We contacted Mark Drew from the IDFG Wildlife Health Laboratory and he kindly offered to do an autopsy for us.
This month, after rigorous testing, x-rays, and a careful necropsy report, we have the results. Venus was killed by a gunshot wound to her upper chest.
The silver lining
While we never wish for any of the curlews we study to die, we are thankful for a few reasons:
- In the past, we have seen several shot curlews on the ACEC and several others where we suspected foul play. By having a transmitter on Venus, we were able to find her body relatively quickly and retrieve the necessary evidence to show that she had been shot.
- We hope that, because of her ‘fame’ as a part of our study, that her death will bring this issue to the attention of the public, so that something can be done to prevent these deaths in the future
- Her death highlights a gap in community awareness that needs to be filled. While shooting of ground squirrels and some other species is legal on the ACEC, Long-billed Curlews (along with many other bird species on the ACEC) are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. This means the person who shot Venus committed a federal crime.
Many who use the ACEC do not realize that it is an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, or that it is illegal to shoot curlews or other birds that live there. We hope that we at IBO, along with your help, can develop a partnership to change this through education and outreach – to the recreationists who visit this area and to the communities surrounding the ACEC as well as in other places in Idaho where illegal shooting of wildlife occurs.
Photos and story by Jay Carlisle
After a couple of weeks of fund-raising and other office work, I happily jumped at a chance to get out for a couple days of woodpecker surveys on the Boise National Forest. I needed to stretch my legs, I hadn’t heard or seen a Black-backed Woodpecker in about a year, and – this is important – there were no World Cup games on the schedule for 2 straight days so I had a perfect window in which to get out!
I waited until after the US-Belgium game ended on Tuesday afternoon so I got a late start heading out and arrived to camp around 11pm. I was awake a little after 5am the next AM to start a steep hike along the Riordan Lake trail to reach my first survey point around sunrise. Surveying for birds in a new area is always exciting for me and of course there’s always the hope of seeing other wildlife on the trail. The partly burned forest surrounding the creek and Hennessey Meadow made for a great backdrop and the meadow itself supported a diverse riparian bird community, including Fox, Lincoln’s, and Song Sparrows; Dusky and Willow Flycatchers; and more.
On my 5th survey point I had an almost immediate response from a Black-backed Woodpecker and soon there were 2 individuals – a good start! I ended up detecting one more Black-backed and also observed four other woodpecker species (Downy, Hairy, Northern Flicker, and Red-naped Sapsucker) and other fun birds like Olive-sided Flycatchers.
After my long hike down, I drove back towards Warm Lake in order to get lunch and find some WiFi access so I could finish work on submitting a proposal before heading back out to my next site. As I got alongside the lake, I saw an adult Red-necked Grebe carrying a chick on its back – how cool!
Thus, I was already fully content with my trip sightings before heading to my second site. My drive that evening took me through miles of burnt trees and it was daunting to think about how large of a fire this was … but also how much habitat this had created for species like Black-backed Woodpeckers, Olive-sided Flycatchers, Mountain Bluebirds, and even American Robins – all of which reach higher densities in burns.
As I drove up the final road, the wind picked up because of a nearby thunderstorm and I hoped no trees would blow down to block my passage in or out! Fortunately, the storm and wind soon subsided. I arrived around 830pm and was more than a little dismayed to find a large and hungry greeting party of mosquitoes! After psyching myself up, I started walking around in search of a good flat place to set up my tent and was swatting mosquitoes constantly – not thinking about birds at all and not carrying binoculars. Then I looked up and saw a bird-like shape on the side of a snag – my heart jumped a bit because of the apparent shape but then I reasoned it had to be one of those thousands of pieces of loose bark hanging off the trees in the area. Then I saw its head turn and I said to myself, “No way!” before stumbling/sprinting my way back to my car to get binoculars, scope, and camera/phone attachment for the scope. A Northern Hawk Owl! I’d been so preoccupied with biting insects that I hadn’t really noticed that the habitat had a boreal nature to it and was similar to other places where I’d seen Hawk Owls … it’s just that I was 250+ miles from the nearest known breeding area. I hurried to snap a few documentation pictures before the sun disappeared. While I was observing the bird, I noticed that it was hanging around the same area and even gave a couple of quiet vocalizations. It made me curious about how long this bird had been here and was it possibly occupying a territory? But, the mosquitoes soon drove me to set up my tent and seek refuge.
Thus, I hurriedly set up my tent and crawled inside – and basked in the excitement of an unexpected sighting of such a charismatic bird! I’d only just started to relax when I heard a high-pitched screeching – I knew I’d heard this sound before and it was when I’d seen fledgling Northern Hawk Owls in Glacier National Park (closest known breeding area) a few summers ago! I knew I wouldn’t have much time to look in the morning as I had woodpecker survey duties so I raced out of my tent. I soon saw an adult in a different area and it flew over me towards the main activity area – this bird was noticeably bigger than the other adult so I must have originally been seeing the male and this was the female! I soon confirmed a view of at least a single fledgling and thought I heard another – but I didn’t want to intrude any closer to pursue the other bird. I had just confirmed breeding Northern Hawk Owls well over 250 miles from where they’ve been documented to breed previously!
I was too excited to sleep for a while so it was another short night and I was awake again before sunrise for woodpecker surveys. After my first point, I took 15 minutes to try for a few more pictures before I continued on my woodpecker transect. I was quickly rewarded with seeing the male capture, kill, then cache a songbird (I’m pretty sure it was a Yellow-rumped Warbler but hard to tell in the low light)! I heard a juvenile beg once but apparently dad didn’t think junior was hungry enough :-) The lighting was still terrible but I tried for a few more pics before moving on and was lucky enough to get this video of a juvenile playing with a branch (!) and a couple other pictures.
The following evening, Larry & Missy Arnold “chased” these birds and confirmed 2 fledglings; thus, 2 adults and at least 2 fledglings! The story gets even better … on the way back home, they stopped to move a fallen tree out of the way and Missy looked up to see another Hawk Owl miles away and a little exploration turned up a total of 2 adults and 3 fledglings. I was excited at seeing one bird and blown away to have documented nesting … but 2 nesting pairs a few miles from each other is mind boggling! It’s such a remote area with relatively few biologists and birders so it’s hard to know what to make of this. Have they been there in prior years, just unnoticed? Or is this a relatively recent colonization event? One Hawk Owl came to Moscow, ID this past winter and we wondered then if that was an isolated event or if others had possibly arrived to more remote areas of Idaho. I don’t think we’ll ever know for sure but future study of this phenomenon might be worthwhile going forward.
*Because of the rarity of the species (especially rare is evidence of breeding in the state – I know of only one other breeding record in Idaho), their confiding nature, and the potential for foul play, I’m reluctant to post the exact location or directions on a public forum. I trust all birders but just don’t want to inadvertently mess up a good thing by letting the info get into the wrong hands. I don’t know all details but >10 years ago there was a pair w/ fledglings in N Idaho and some birders worried they ended up shot & I don’t want the same result.
Wow! Two more weeks in the field studying the Northern Goshawk with fantastic friends, findings and results. Here’s a follow up to my previous posts (My Project of the Year – The Northern Goshawk and The Northern Goshawk in Biogeographical Context), with new updates, photos and stories.
I have stated in previous posts that one of the objectives the Intermountain Bird Observatory’s 2014 goshawk season is to establish the degree of linkage between the more “island-like” forests of the northern Great Basin and the more contiguous forests of the Rocky Mountains. We expect to do that using genetic techniques. Our area of focus for this first year of genetic work is the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest. However, our past work of banding and color banding individuals continues to pay off as we relocate these birds.
While surveying for goshawk territories in the Albion mountains, I came upon this female bird with the familiar purple color band. Our team is the only group assigned to use purple color bands on goshawks, so I knew that it was a “friend” of ours. Upon closer inspection, I could read the two digit color band code and identify the bird. This female (Purple Z3) was hatched in the South Hills in 2012 and banded by our team as part of that effort. She now has offspring of her own, likely her first, although some females do breed as sub-adults.
Female Purple Z3 nesting in the Albion Mountains, Idaho.
Purple color band Z3 clearly visible on her right leg. This is a “Type 1” band with two digit code oriented vertically.
Female Purple Z3 as nestling in 2012 in the South Hills, Idaho.
Female Purple Z3’s 2014 nest with a single nestling, approximately 15 days old, Albion Mountains, Idaho.
Learning the Basics
This year my field partner is an undergraduate student from Oberlin College in Ohio, Steph Szarmach. She is in the NSF-funded Research for Undergraduates (REU) program at Boise State University. She has now completed her four weeks in the field and will transition into the lab for the remainder of her time in Boise to work on the genetic analysis of the Northern Goshawk. She plans to measure the genetic diversity of the goshawk within the Minidoka Ranger District and to relate these genetics to the biogeography of other populations. In more simple terms, how related are the northern Great Basin goshawks to the Rocky Mountain populations?
As part of Steph’s field experience, she learned to survey, find nests, age young, trap birds, climb trees, band birds, and draw blood samples from birds, not to mention all of the new laboratory and analysis techniques. Wow, what an experience. Some activities took quite a bit of practice. During our first practice, it took Steph and I nearly two hours to “shoot a line” through a high Aspen tree.
Steph practicing with the throwline used to pull a rope into the tree.
Other activities came more easily. After only 4 practice climbs, Steph successfully climbed into her first raptor nest. This one was into a 40’ Douglas Fir tree in the Sublett Mountains. She would complete two more flawless climbs before our fieldwork was complete.
Steph’s first climb into a real goshawk nest, Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
Steph retrieving nestlings from nest for banding and genetic sampling, Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
In other nest stands Steph learned to band both adult and nestling birds, measure and record morphometric attributes and complete the collection of genetic samples.
Steph checking the band size of an adult goshawk, South Hills, Idaho.
Steph applying USGS band to adult goshawk, South Hills, Idaho.
Steph measuring the Hallux of an adult goshawk, South Hills, Idaho.
Steph now transitions into lab to continue processing the 26 blood samples that team goshawk collected in 2012 along with the 24 new samples we collected this past week. Additional samples are being sent in from forest service teams across the state. Steph will process the samples, analyze the results and then present those results at an undergraduate research conference at the end of July. Her and I have also received a joint NSF grant to travel to the Raptor Research Foundation annual conference in Corpus Christi, Texas in Late September. Steph will present her results to an international audience of raptor researchers at that conference. Very exciting stuff!
Whenever we handle individual birds, we often witness unique aspects which differentiate individuals within the population. Our field guides like to suggest that there is one reference model individual with all others being similar, but variation is very high, just as it is in humans. We had a female bird whose legs were so big, the “standard” band would barely fit. On the final individual we processed, an adult male from the Albion Mountains, Greg noticed that the tail lacked the barring which is common on goshawks.
Rob (me) and Greg with adult male goshawk with all grey tail, Albion Mountains, Idaho.
Rob (me) with adult male goshawk with all grey tail, Albion Mountains, Idaho.
Unfortunately, not everything we find is as exciting. Most of the adult female birds we processed showed signs of Leucocytozoon infection. Leucocytozoons are blood parasites related to malaria (Apicomplexans). The IBO team (Michelle Jeffries, Michelle Laskowski, Jay Carlisle, and myself) have a research manuscript in review on this matter. We know the disease pervasive in the area, but these skin lesions suggest that the impact on individuals is far from minimal.
Skin lesions on adult female goshawk indicative of Leucocytozoon infection, South Hills, Idaho.
You just can’t have too many goshawk photos!
Steph and Rob (me) with an adult specimen of one of the greatest birds on the planet, the Northern Goshawk, South Hills, Idaho.
Two recent goshawk fledglings, approximately 40-42 days old in the Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
Adult goshawk, Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
Northern Goshawk weapons of flesh destruction, South Hills, Idaho.
Adult Goshawk, South Hills, Idaho. Dark red eyes suggestive of an older bird.
Adult Goshawk, Albion Mountains, Idaho. Orange eyes suggestive of a younger bird, but at least two years old (adult plumage instead of juvenile plumage).
Rob (me) with the final bird banded in the 2014 season, an adult male, Albion Mountains, Idaho.
Team Goshawk 2014
Here I am, the fearless leader of Team Goshawk, ready for action! South Hills, Idaho.
Steph Szarmach, Field Technician and Genetic Analyst displaying a hole in her climbing jacket resulting from an adult goshawk attack! Yes, the bird penetrated her skin as well! Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
Greg Kaltenecker, IBO Executive Director applying a hood to an adult goshawk, South Hills, Idaho.
Dusty Perkins, volunteer, genetics mentor, and tree climbing mentor preparing to climb, Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
Austin Young, volunteer, with Northern Goshawk nestling, Sublett Mountains, Idaho.
Michelle Jeffries, volunteer and fellow goshawk researcher with adult female goshawk, South Hills, Idaho.
Michelle Jeffries with four other visiting Boise State REU students – Patrick (studies Northern Harriers), Rachel (studies Harpy Eagles), Sara (studies Burrowing Owls), and Jarod (studies Burrowing Owls).
Skyler, another visiting Boise State REU student (studies Burrowing Owls).
Leroy, raptor expert, one of my mentors and project volunteer, along with Steph and Greg, Albion Mountains, Idaho.
It’s not a bird, but come on, that’s cute!
Steph and I would each see more than 10 Moose!
Moose calf, Albion Mountains, Idaho.
Cow and calf Moose, Albion Mountains, Idaho.